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Old 07-17-2005, 04:51 PM   #1 (permalink)
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Default Lesson 8 - Making a sentence, possessive suffixes

Here you will learn some new words, possessive suffixes and some useful conjunctions.


Let's start with kongruenssi thing. It's very very very simple indeed. adjective and substantive are in same number. So, if the substantive is in plular, the adjective must be in plular too. also, if the main word of the sentence is in inessive, the others must be in it too.

tämä suuri kassi - this big bag
tässä suuressa kassissa - in this big bag

tämä=this, suuri=big/large, kassi=bag

iso poika - big boy
isot pojat - bog boys *if you don't know why there's a j, go to previous lesson and read the rules on gradation*

iso=big/large, poika=boy


now i want to teach you about words ending with -i.

if you want to add a case ending, a plular suffix or any suffix at all, you have to know how to inflect the word.

see: finland=suomi and in partitive it's suomea.

see the groups

NOMINATIVE-INESSIVE-PARTITIVE-ENGLISH

(i changes to e)
suomi -> suomessa, suomea (finland)
lehti -> lehdessä, lehteä (a leaf, magazine)
järvi -> järvessä, järveä (lake)
joki -> joessa, jokea (river)
veli -> veljessä, veljeä (borther)

(inessive i changes to e, partitive i changes to -tä or -ta)
pieni - pienessä, pientä (small, little)
sieni - sienessä, sientä (mushroom)
suuri - suuressa, suurta (big)
saari - saaressa, saarta (island)
tuuri - tuuressa, tuurta (luck)
kieli - kielessä, kieltä (tongue, language)

uusi - uudessa, uutta (new)
vesi - vedessä, vettä (water)
vuosi - vuodessa, vuotta (year)
kuukausi - kuukaudessa, kuukautta (month)

these words are better to learn by heart.

So then, the possesive suffixes and personal pronouns..

English ............... Finnish ......... suffix
I/my................minä / minun... -ni
YOU/your..........sinä / sinun..... -si
S/HE/his,her........hän / hänen.... -nsa
WE,our...............me / meidän.... -mme
YOU pl, your........te / teidän...... -nne
THEY, their..........he / heidän..... -nsa

so, "book" is "kirja" in finnish.. how would you say "my book" ?


if you are thinking of kirjani, youre right. if you want to make sure that it's MY book, you can say "minun kirjani." anyway, you can't say as "minun kirja". it's wrong. you should say "minun kirjani" or just "kirjani". never use "minun, sinun etc." without the possessive suffix.
ALSO note that the word with possessive suffix is also in plular.
kissani = my cat, my cats
hänen koiransa = his dog, his dogs

let's go on with sentences..

auto = car
book = kirja
talo = house
linna = castle
aasi = donkey
kissa = cat
tyhmä = stupid
kaunis = beautiful
ruma = ugly
upea = great, gorgeous
iso = big
pieni = small
on=is, ovat=are
ei=no
yhtä adjective kuin = as ... as

a) make simple sentences using substantives and adjectives, cases and generally evertything you've learnt..!

b)
-divide case endings, plulars etc (kissasi -> kissa/si etc)
-translate into english

kissani on suuri ja kissasi on pieni, mutta hänen kissansa on ruma. Se ruma kissa on suuressa talossa. Aasinne on kaunis, muttei yhtä upea kuin kissamme!


kaunis kissa = beautiful cat
kissa on kaunis = cat is beautiful

you can see that the word order is exactly as in english so no problems with it!

some useful conjunctions:
ja - and
mutta - but
vain - only
jos - if
kun - when
koska - because


as a homework, make a shooort text (as i made up there).. use stuff you've learnt.. look for new words from dictionary if you want to etc.
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Old 07-17-2005, 06:04 PM   #2 (permalink)
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eh too difficult? should i make some changes lol ?
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Old 07-17-2005, 06:10 PM   #3 (permalink)
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1- minun pientä kissani on kaunis : my little cat is beautiful !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

was that right ???

2- minun taloni on iso : my house is big !

3- minun toverini on upea : my friend is great

so .. are these right ?
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Old 07-17-2005, 06:22 PM   #4 (permalink)
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1- minun pientä kissani on kaunis : my little cat is beautiful !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

nearly, minun pieni kissani on kaunis!

was that right ???

2- minun taloni on iso : my house is big !

yesss

3- minun toverini on upea : my friend is great

yes, but i'd prefer 'kaverini'.. toveri is such an old word..

so .. are these right ?

nearly "my little cat" is just simply "minun pieni kissani" paritive is used much only with verbs.
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Old 07-17-2005, 06:31 PM   #5 (permalink)
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so , after all , am not stupid on Sundays hehe ..
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Old 07-17-2005, 06:32 PM   #6 (permalink)
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noo nani's very intelligent
on every day
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Old 07-17-2005, 06:35 PM   #7 (permalink)
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yay thank you jonne
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